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Environmental Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals

Peer-reviewed publications

Jacobsen, A.M. & Halling-Sørensen, B. (2006). Multi-component analysis of tetracyclines, sulfonamides and tylosin in swine manure by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 384, 1164-1174.

Escher, B.I., Bramaz, N., Richter, M. & Lienert, J. (2006). Comparative ecotoxicological hazard assessment of beta-blockers and their human metabolites using a mode-of-action-based test battery and a QSAR approach. Environ. Sci. Technol. 40, 7402-7408.

Hempel, H., Scheffczyk, A., Schallnaß, H.-J., Lumaret, J.-P., Alvinerie, M. & Römbke, J. (2006). Effects of four veterinary pharmaceuticals on the dung beetle Aphodius constans in the laboratory. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 25, 3155-3163.

Boxall, A.B., Sherratt, T.N., Pudner, V. & Pope, L.J. (2007): A screening level index for assessing the impacts of veterinary medicines on dung flies. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 2630-2635.

Maurer, M., Escher, B., Richle, P., Schaffner, C. & Alder, A.C. (2007): Elimination of ß-blockers in sewage treatment plants. Water Res. 41, 1614-1622.

Lumaret, J-P., Alvinerie, M., Hempel, H., Schallnass, H-J., Claret, D. & Römbke, J. (2007): New screening test to predict the potential impact of ivermectin-contaminated cattle dung on dung beetles. Vet. Res. 38, 15-24.

Lienert, J., Güdel, K. & Escher, B.I. (2007): Screening method for ecotoxicological hazard assessment of 42 pharmaceuticals considering human metabolism and excretory routes. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 4471-4478.

Schneider, M.K., Stamm, C. & Fenner, K. (2007): Selecting scenarios to assess exposure of surface waters to veterinary medicines in Europe . Environ. Sci. Technol. 41, 4669-4676.

Römbke, J., Hempel, H., Scheffczyk, A., Schallnass, H-J., Alvinerie, M. & Lumaret, J-P. (2007): Entwicklung eines standardisierten Labortests für Dungkäfer (Aphodius constans) zur Prüfung der Ökotoxizität von Tierarzneimitteln. UWSF - Z. Umweltchemie & Schadstoff-Forschung 19, 197-205.

Schneider, M.K., Brunner, F., Hollis J.M., & Stamm C. (2007): Towards a hydrological classification of European soils: Testing its predictive power for the Base Flow Index using river discharge data. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1501-1513.

Owen, S.F., Giltrow, E., Huggett, D.B., Hutchinson , T.H., Saye, J.A., Winter, M.J. & Sumpter, J.P. (2007): Comparative physiology, pharmacology and toxicology of β-blockers: Mammals versus fish. Aquat. Toxicol. 82, 145-162.

Garric, J., Vollat, B., Duis, K., Péry, A., Junker, T., Ramil, M., Fink, G. & Ternes, T.A. (2007): Effects of the parasiticide ivermectin on the cladoceran Daphnia magna and the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Chemosphere 69, 903-910.

Römbke, J., Hempel, H., Scheffczyk, A., Schallnass, H-J., Alvinerie, M. & Lumaret, J-P. (2007): Environmental risk assessment of veterinary pharmaceuticals: development of a standard laboratory test with the dung beetle Aphodius constans. Chemosphere 70, 57-64.

Winter, M.J., Lillicrap, A.D., Caunter, J.E., Schaffner, C., Alder, A.C., Ramil, M., Ternes, T.A., Giltrow E., Sumpter, J.P. & Hutchinson, T.H. (2007): Defining the chronic impacts of atenolol on embryo-larval development and reproduction, in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Aquat. Toxicol. in press.

Escher, B.I., Berger, C.M., Bramaz, N., Kwon, J.-H., Richter, M., Tsinman, O. & Avdeef, A. (2008): Membrane-water partitioning membrane permeability and baseline toxicity of the parasiticides ivermectin, albendazole and morantel. Environ. Tox. Chem. 27: in press.

Larsbo, M., Fenner, K., Stoob, K., Burkhardt, M., Abbaspour, K. & Stamm, C. (2008): Simulating sulfadimidine transport in surface runoff and soil at the micro-plot and field scale. J. Environ. Qual., in press.

Other publications

Knacker, T., Duis, K., Ternes, T., Fenner, K., Escher, B., Schmitt, H., Römbke, J., Garric, J., Hutchinson, T. & Boxall, A.B.A. (2005). The EU-project ERAPharm. Incentives for the further development of guidance documents? ESPR – Environ. Sci. & Pollut. Res. 12 (2), 62-65.

ERAPharm – a new EU-project on the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. SETAC Globe 6 (3), 2005, 42-43.

Knacker, T. & Duis, K. (2005). Das EU-Projekt ERAPharm – Impulse für die Leitfadengestaltung? UBA-Texte 29/05, 43-49.

Press release (‘Neue Ansätze für eine verbesserte Beurteilung möglicher Umweltrisiken von Arzneimitteln’), available at http://www.erapharm.org/downloads.html

Sediment studies in the EU-project ERAPharm. SedNet Newsletter, April 2006, available at http://www.sednet.org/content/view/88/57/

Fenner, K., Schneider, M., Escher, B. & Larsbo, M.: Arzneimittel – Neue Ansätze in der Risikobewertung. Eawag annual report 2006.

Schneider, M.K., Stamm, C. & Fenner, K. A simple scoring system to identify exposure scenarios for veterinary medicines at the European level. In: Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment: Focusing on complex chemical risk assessment and the identification of highest risk conditions. EUR 22625 EN, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. A Pistocchi (Ed.), Luxembourg.

ERAPharm: Approaches for improving the environmental risk assessment of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals. Newsletter 1/07 of the project ‘start’ (‘Strategien zum Umgang mit Arzneimittelwirkstoffen im Trinkwasser’).

Knacker, T. (2007): Umweltrisikobewertung von Humanpharmaka – Inhalte und Ziele des von der EU geförderten Projektes ERAPharm. Pharm. Ind. 69 (4): 404-406.

Knacker, T.: Presentation of ERAPharm and final project results in the newsletter of Network of reference laboratories for monitoring of emerging environmental pollutants (NORMAN).

Schmitt, H. (2007): Antibiotika als Umweltkontaminanten – Effekte auf Mikroorganismen, Münchener Beiträge zur Abwasser-. Fischerei- und Flussbiologie, Band 58, Bayerisches Landesamt für Umwelt (Ed.), p. 177-186.

Debbie Lawes: Drugs in our water. Feature story, Canadian Water Network, September 2005.

http://www.cwn-rce.ca/index.php?fa=Media.showFeatureSept

Medikamente im Boden und im Wasser - Welche Wirkung haben die nachgewiesenen Substanzen? Neue Züricher Zeitung, 25.05.2005

http://www.nzz.ch/2005/05/25/ft/articleCRJYA.html


Conferences and workshops organised by ERAPharm partners

Workshop on ‘Sulfonamide antibiotics in the environment – fate and effects’, organised by H. Schmitt. Utrecht University, Utrecht (The Netherlands), 09 February 2006.

Session on ‘Environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals: The state-of-the-art’ chaired by T. Knacker and A. Boxall. SETAC Europe 16th Annual Meeting, The Hague (The Netherlands), 07-11 May 2006.

Workshop on ‘Exposure modelling and monitoring – use of data and models’ chaired by M. Ramil. Joint DIA/HESI/SAPS Conference on Environmental Assessment of Human Medicines, Stockholm (Sweden), 22-23 May 2006.

Workshop on ‘Human pharmaceuticals: risk for freshwater ecosystem’ organised by J. Garric in the framework of a national program aiming to prioritise human pharmaceuticals in a freshwater monitoring program. Lyon (France), 30 June 2006.

FORUM-Conference ‚Umweltbewertung von Humanpharmaka’, organised by T. Knacker, J. Koschorreck and T. Ternes, Düsseldorf (Germany), 18-19 September 2006.

Workshop on ‘Ecological risk assessment of pharmaceuticals’ organised by C. Metcalfe, Viamede Resort, Stoney Lake, Ontario (Canada), 07 October 2006.

Workshop on ‘Usage and environmental fate of veterinary pharmaceuticals’ organised by M. Schneider, Dübendorf (Switzerland), 17 January 2007.

Workshop on‘Emerging contaminants in the environments. Exposure, fate, effects, risk assessment and mitigation measures’ organised by T. Ternes and C. Metcalfe, Koblenz (Germany), 30 March 2007.

International Conference on Analysis of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment’ organised by A. Boxall, York (U.K.), 7-9 March 2007.

International conference on ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’ organised by ERAPharm, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Presentations at national and international conferences and meetings

Boxall, A.: Fate of pharmaceuticals in the environment. Platform presentation, Society of Chemical Industry (SCI) meeting ‘Pharmaceuticals in the environment: fate, effects and regulation’, London (U.K.), 01 March 2005.

Fenner, K.: Challenges in exposure modelling for pharmaceuticals. Platform presentation, Society of Chemical Industry (SCI) meeting ‘Pharmaceuticals in the environment: fate, effects and regulation’, London (U.K.), 01 March 2005.

Knacker, T., Liebig, M., Duis, K. & Klaschka, U.: European efforts concerning risk assessment, research and source control for PPCPs. Platform presentation, Environment Canada Workshop on ‘PPCPs in the environment – towards the development of a national research strategy’, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, Ontario (Canada), 10-11 March 2005.

Boxall, A.B.A.: Fate of veterinary medicines in the environment. Platform presentation, TETSOIL meeting, Vienna (Austria), 19 May 2005.

Alder, A.C., Richle, P., McArdell, C.S. & Giger, W.: Betablockers in municipal wastewaters in Switzerland. Poster, SETAC Europe 15th Annual Meeting, Lille (France), 22-26 May 2005.

Duis, K., Ternes, T.A., Fenner, K., Escher, B., Schmitt, H., Römbke, J., Garric, J., Hutchinson, T., Boxall, A. & Knacker, T.: ERAPharm − a project for improving future environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. Poster, SETAC Europe 15th Annual Meeting, Lille (France), 22-26 May 2005.

Krogh, K.A., Löffler, D., Ternes, T, Halling-Sørensen, B. Determination of parasiticides in waters, soil and sediment using LC-MS/MS. Platform presentation, SETAC Europe 15th Annual Meeting, Lille (France), 22-26 May 2005.

Sánchez, P., Ortiz, J. & Tarazona, J.V.: Hazard assessment of pharmaceuticals on terrestrial ecosystems. Platform presentation, SETAC Europe 15th Annual Meeting, Lille (France), 22-26 May 2005.

Schmitt, H., van Beelen, P., Hamscher, G., Stoob, K. & Seinen, W.: Antibiotic usage in veterinary farming and antibiotic resistance. Platform presentation, SETAC Europe 15th Annual Meeting, Lille (France), 22-26 May 2005.

Tarazona, J.V., Alonso, E., Gónzalez-Doncel, M. San-Andres, M.I., Carbonell, G.: Use of toxicokinetic/toxicodynamics information for predicting bioaccumulation and critical body burdens of pharmaceuticals in aquatic organisms. Platform presentation, SETAC Europe 15th Annual Meeting, Lille (France), 22-26 May 2005.

Escher, B.: Mode-of-action based ecotoxicological hazard assessment. Platform presentation, The National Research Institute for Environmental Toxicology (Entox), University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia), 10 June 2005.

Jensen, J.: Risk management or further investigations of VMPs? – A scientist’s look on various options. Platform presentation, AnimalPharm Conference, Amsterdam (The Netherlands), 03 October 2005.

Fenner, K.: Current state of the art and challenges in exposure assessment for pharmaceuticals (ERAPharm). Platform presentation, EMEA Conference on ‘Environmental risk assessment for human and veterinary medicinal Products’, London (U.K.), 27-28 October 2005.

Knacker, T., Duis, K., Escher, B., Hutchinson, T., Tarazona, J., Ternes, T., Apel, P., Koschorreck, J. & Boxall, A.: Environmental risk assessment for pharmaceuticals − challenges from a scientific point of view. EMEA Platform presentation, Conference on ‘Environmental risk assessment for human and veterinary medicinal products’, London (U.K.), 27-28 October 2005.

Escher, B.I., Bramaz, N., Lienert, J. & Richter, M.: Comparative ecotoxicological hazard assessment of beta-blockers and their human metabolites. Platform presentation, SETAC North America 26th Annual Meeting, Baltimore, U.S.A., 13-17 November 2005.

Duis, K., Ternes, T.A., Fenner, K., Escher, B., Schmitt, H., Römbke, J., Garric, J., Hutchinson, T., Boxall, A. & Knacker, T.: ERAPharm: a European project on environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. Poster, SETAC North America 26th Annual Meeting, Baltimore, U.S.A., 13-17 November 2005.

Ramil, M., Fink, G., Löffler, D. & Ternes, T.: Fate of pharmaceuticals in sediments. Platform presentation, SETAC North America 26th Annual Meeting, Baltimore, U.S.A., 13-17 November 2005.

Schneider, M. & Stamm, C.: Veterinary pharmaceuticals in the environment. Platform presentation, Workshop on Veterinary Pharmaceuticals, Swissmedic (Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products), Berne (Switzerland), 24 November 2005.

Tarazona, J.V.: Evaluación de riesgo ambiental de medicamentos veterinarios propuestas de ERAPharm. Jornada sobre estudios de impacto ambiental de medicamentos de uso veterinario, Spanish Association of Industry Pharmaceuticals (AEFI), Barcelona (Spain), 14 March 2006.

Escher, B. Duis, K. & Knacker, T.: Forschungsprogramme in Europa mit Bezug zu URB-P, Europäisches Programm ERAPharm. 40. Sitzung der Fachkommission für Umwelttoxikologie, Bundesamt für Umwelt, Basel (Switzerland), 21 March 2006.

Schneider, M., Fenner, K. & Stamm, C.: Tierarzneimittel in der Umwelt: Stoffflüsse und Risikoanalyse. Presentation, Swiss Federal Veterinary Office, Bern (Switzerland), 21 March 2006.

Duis, K., Egeler, P., Gilberg, D., Fink, G., Ternes, T., Vollat, B. & Garric, J.: Long-term effects of ivermectin to non-target aquatic invertebrate species. Poster, SETAC Europe 16th Annual Meeting, The Hague (The Netherlands), 07-11 May 2006.

Escher, B.I., Bramaz, N., Richter, M. & Lienert, J.: Comparative ecotoxicological hazard assessment of ß-blockers and their human metabolites. Platform presentation, SETAC Europe 16th Annual Meeting, The Hague (The Netherlands), 07-11 May 2006.

Ramil, M., Scheurer, M., ElAref, T., Ternes, T., Alder, A., Mauer, M., Richle, P., Schaffner, C., Böhlen, M. & Lustenberger, S.: Occurrence and fate of betablockers in aqueous environments. Poster, SETAC Europe 16th Annual Meeting, The Hague (The Netherlands), 07-11 May 2006.

Schmitt, H., Meisner, A., Greve, G., Wouterse, M. & Serail P.: The effects of veterinary antibiotics on soil microbial communities. Platform presentation, SETAC Europe 16th Annual Meeting, The Hague (The Netherlands), 07-11 May 2006.

Schneider, M.K. & Fenner, K.: Probabilistic scenario selection for environmental risk assessment of veterinary pharmaceuticals. Platform presentation, SETAC Europe 16th Annual Meeting, The Hague (The Netherlands), 07-11 May 2006.

Schneider, M.K. & Fenner, K.: Developing scenarios for the environmental risk assessment of veterinary pharmaceuticals at the European level. 1st open international NoMiracle workshop on ‘Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment: Focussing on complex chemical risk assessment and the identification of highest risk conditions’, Verbania - Intra, (Italy) 08-09 June 2006.

Schmitt, H.: The effects of veterinary antibiotics on soil microbial communities. Invited plenary presentation, SETAC GLB Annual Meeting, Landau (Germany), 03-05 September 2006.

Schmitt, H., Greve, G., Meisner, A. & Wouterse, M.: The effects of sulfamethoxazole on soil: structure of the microbial community. Poster, 11th International symposium on ‘Microbial ecology’ (ISME-11), Vienna (Austria), 21-25 August 2006.

Boxall, A.: Emerging environmental contaminants. Platform presentation, SETAC U.K. Annual Meeting, Liverpool (U.K.), 4-5 September 2006.

Knacker, T.: Einführung Umweltrisikobewertung: Was beabsichtigt das EU-geförderte Projekt ERAPharm? Platform presentation, FORUM-Conference‚ ‘Umweltbewertung von Humanpharmaka’, Düsseldorf (Germany), 18-19 September 2006.

Ternes, T., Ramil, M. & Löffler, D.: Kenngrössen zur Abschätzung des Vorkommens von Substanzen in der Umwelt: Was wird unter Persistenz und Sorption verstanden? Platform presentation, FORUM-Conference ‘Umweltbewertung von Humanpharmaka’ Düsseldorf (Germany), 18-19 September 2006.

Römbke, J.: Terrestrische Wirkungstests. Platform presentation, FORUM-Conference ‘Umweltbewertung von Humanpharmaka’ Düsseldorf (Germany), 18-19 September 2006.

Boxall, A.: Exposure assessment of pharmaceuticals in the terrestrial environment, Platform presentation, IBC Meeting on ‘Pharmaceuticals in the environment’, Amsterdam (The Netherlands), 26-27 September 2006.

Alder, A.C., Maurer, M., Böhler, M., Richle, P. & Schaffner, C. Elimination of β-blockers in sewage treatment plants. Poster, Fall meeting of the Swiss Chemical Society, Zurich (Switzerland), 13 October 2006.

Holm, G. & Hutchinson, T.: Ecotoxicity of pharmaceuticals – how to use biomarkers and nonclinical data? Platform presentation, Oslo workshop on ‘The environmental fate and effects of pharmaceuticals and personal care products’, Oslo Centre for Interdisciplinary Environmental and Social Research (CIENS), Oslo (Norway). 24 November 2006.

Rönnefahrt, I. & Koschorreck, J.: EU regulations on environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. Platform presentation, Oslo workshop on ‘The environmental fate and effects of pharmaceuticals and personal care products’, Oslo Centre for Interdisciplinary Environmental and Social Research (CIENS), Oslo (Norway). 24 November 2006.

Ramil, M., El Aref, T., Löffler, D. & Ternes, T.: Fate of pharmaceuticals in water-sediment systems. Platform presentation, 4th European conference on ‘Pesticides and related organic micropollutants in the environment’ and 10th symposium on ‘Chemistry and fate of modern pesticides’, Almería (Spain), 26-29 November 2006.

Larsbo, M., Burkhardt, M., Stoob, K., Stamm, C., Abbaspour, K., & Fenner, K.: Evaluation of a dual-permeability model for simulating sulfadimidine and bromide transport in surface runoff and soil at the micro-plot and field scale. Platform presentation, Symposium on ‘Preferential flow and transport processes in soil’, Monte Verità (Switzerland), 04-09 November 2006.

Schneider, M.K., Stamm, C. & Fenner, K.: Selecting scenarios to assess exposure of surface waters to veterinary medicines in Europe. Poster, UBA-Symposium on ‘Environmental risk assessment of veterinary medicines’, Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany), 12-13 December 2006.

Escher, B.I., Bramaz, N., Richter, M. & Lienert, J.: Comparative ecotoxicological hazard assessment of ß-blockers and their human metabolites. Platform presentation, 7th Annual meeting of the Center for Xenobiotic and Environmental Risk Research, Zurich (Switzerland), 14 December 2006.

Knacker, T. & Liebig, M.: Umweltrisikobewertung von Arzneimitteln – Einführung und Grundlagen. Platform presentation, FORUM-Seminar ‘Umweltbewertung von Arzneimitteln’, Frankfurt/Main (Germany), 14 February 2007.

Koschorreck, J.: Vorstellung der EMEA-Richtlinie. Platform presentation, FORUM-Seminar ‘Umweltbewertung von Arzneimitteln’, Frankfurt/Main (Germany), 14 February 2007.

Snape, J.R.: Presentation of ERAPharm to Members of Parliament, London (u.K.), 4 March 2007.

Knacker, T., Liebig, M. & Moltmann, J.F.: Comparison of prospective and retrospective environmental risk assessments of human pharmaceuticals. Platform presentation, EmCon 2007 – International Conference on Analysis of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment, York (U.K.), 7-9 March 2007.

Monteiro, S.: Transport of pharmaceuticals in surface runoff following simulated rainfall on field plots receiving biosolids. Platform presentation, EmCon 2007 – International Conference on Analysis of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment, York (U.K.), 7-9 March 2007.

Pope, L.: Inputs and fate of ivermectin and metabolites in the UK pasture environment. Platform presentation, EmCon 2007 – International Conference on Analysis of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment, York (U.K.), 7-9 March 2007.

Krogh, K.A., Sporring, S., Soborg, T., Raich-Montiu, J. & Halling-Sorensen, B.: The fate of ivermectin and elucidation of ivermectin transformation products in different media. Platform presentation, EmCon 2007 – International Conference on Analysis of Emerging Contaminants in the Environment, York (U.K.), 7-9 March 2007.

Schneider, M.K., Brunner, F., Hollis, J.M. & Stamm, C.: Validating a hydrological classification of European soils with river discharge data. Platform presentation, EGU General Assembly 2007, Vienna (Austria), 19 April 2007.

Kools, S.A.E., Boxall, A.B.A., Knacker, T., Moltmann, J.F., Bryning G. & Koschorreck J.: Risk-based ranking for active substances of veterinary medicines. Poster, 17th Annual Meeting of SETAC Europe, Porto (Portugal), 20-24 May 2007.

Alder, A.C., Schaffner, C., Majewsky, M., Richle, P. & Maurer M.: Occurrence and fate of beta-blockers in the Glatt Valley Watershed. Poster, 17th Annual Meeting of SETAC Europe, Porto (Portugal), 20-24 May 2007.

Stein, K., Ramil, M., Fink, G. & Ternes, T.: Sorption von Psychopharmaka und Antibiotika im Wasser-Sediment-System. Poster, WASSER 2007. Jahrestagung der Wasserchemischen Gesellschaft. Passau (Germany) 14-16. May 2007.

Knacker, T., Duis, K., Egeler, P., Moldan, N., Liebig, M., Wehrhan, A., Rönnefahrt, I., Garric, J., Tarazona, J.V., Ternes, T., Boxall, A. & Halling-Sørensen, B.: Impact of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin on aquatic organisms: an ERAPharm case study. Platform presentation, Micropol & Ecohazard 2007: 5th IWA specialised conference on ‘Assessment and control of micropollutants /hazardous substances in water’, Frankfurt/Main (Germany), 17-20 June 2007.

Ramil, M., El Aref, T., Stein, K., Fink, G. & Ternes, T.: Fate of pharmaceuticals in water-sediment systems. Poster, Micropol & Ecohazard 2007: 5th IWA specialised conference on ‘Assessment and control of micropollutants /hazardous substances in water’, Frankfurt/Main (Germany), 17-20 June 2007.

Schmitt, H.: The effects of antibiotics on soil microbial communities – chlortetracycline. Platform presentation, Conference ‘Soil and water’, Zeist (The Netherlands), 5 June 2007.

Schmitt, H., Greve, G., Meisner, A. & Wouterse, M.: Structural and functional changes in the soil microbial community upon antibiotic stress. Poster, 9th Symposium on Bacterial Genetics and Ecology (Bageco), Wernigerode (Germany), 22 June 2007.

Schmitt, H.: Reaktion von Bodenmikroorganismen auf Antibiotika. Platform presentation, AGES Tagung, Vienna (Austria), 28 June 2007.

Escher, B.: Mischungstoxizität von Fluoxetin und seinen Humanmetaboliten in Algen. SETAC GLB Annual meeting, Leipzig (Germany), 12-14 September 2007.

Knacker, T.: The ERAPharm Project. Introduction to the ERAPharm Conference, Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Römbke, J., Alonso, A., Boxall, A.B.A., Förster, B., Jensen, J., Lumaret, J.-P., Pope, L. & Tarazona, J.: Effects of ivermectin on dung and soil organisms and on dung degradation under filed conditions. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Liebig M., Boxall, A.B.A., Duis, K., Egeler, P., Garric, J., Halling-Sorensen, B., Knacker, T., Krogh, K. & Küster, A.: Preliminary environmental risk assessment of the parasiticide ivermectin. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Krogh, K.A., Jensen,G.G., Sporring, S. & Halling-Sørensen, B.: Tighten the concept of OECD 106 and 307 to assess the fate of veterinary medicines. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Alder, A.C., Schaffner, C., Richle, P., Majewsky, M., Maurer, M. & Fenner, K.: Fate of b-blockers in wastewater treatment plants and in surface water. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Schlüsener, M., Ramil, M., Fink, G., Schulz, M., El Aref, T., Prasse, C., Scheurer, M., Löffler, D. & Ternes, T.: Are the OECD 106 and 308 tests appropriate for pharmaceuticals? Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Neuwoehner J. & Escher, B.: Mixture toxicity of fluoxetine and its human metabolites towards algae. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Topp, E., Beck, A., Boxall, A., Duenk, P., Kleywegt, S., Lapen, D., Li, H., Metcalfe, C. & Monteiro, S.: Selected PPCPs in surface runoff from agricultural land receiving sewage sludge. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Monteiro, S., Qin, K. & Boxall, A.: Fate of human pharmaceuticals in the soil environment. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Schneider, M., Stamm, C. & Fenner, K.: Evaluating scenarios to assess the exposure of surface waters to veterinary medicines in Europe. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Larsbo, M., Fenner, K., Lapen, D., Topp, E. & Abbaspour, K.: Physically based solute transport models as tools in environmental risk assessments for pharmaceuticals. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Schmitt, H., Greve, G. Meisner, A., Vaessen, T., Snape, J. & Davies, I: Effects of antibiotics on microbial communities. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Jensen, J.: Higher tier testing of pharmaceuticals: toxicity of anthelmintics in two-species and multi-species test systems. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Parrott, J & Balakrishnan V.: Fathead minnow lifecycle exposures to the ß-blocker propanolol. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Garric, J., Bluebaum-Gronau, E. Duis, K. Liebig, M., Péry, A., Sánchez-Argüello, P. & Tarazona, J.V.: Effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic invertebrates in standard and non-standard toxicity tests. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Hutchinson, T.: Exposure of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to atenolol: responses at the whole animal and molecular levels. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Snape, J.: Intelligent testing strategies for the environmental exposure and persistency assessments of human medicines. Platform presentation, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Davies, I.A., Sharpe, A.D., Boxall, A.B., Schmitt, H. & Snape, J.R.: Development & utilization of Biolog GN2 plates to assess the effects of sulfamethoxazole in aquatic microcosms. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Raich-Montiu, J., Krogh, K.A., Sporring, S. & Halling-Sørensen, B.: Assessment of a hollow fibre extraction technique for the determination of ivermectin and abiotic degradation products. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Sporring, S., Krogh, K.A., Jensen,G.G., Raich-Montiu, J. & Halling-Sørensen, B.: Determination of abiotic and microbial transformation products of ivermectin. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Alonso, A., Fernández, C., Porcel, M.A. & Tarazona, J.V.: Dynamics of ivermectin in soils under dung from ivermectin-treated dairy cows. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Alonso, A., Fernández, C., Porcel, M.A., Parrilla, G., San Andrés, M. & Tarazona, J.V.: Pharmacokinetic profile of ivermectin in cattle after subcutaneous administration. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Alonso, A., Fernández, C., Porcel, M.A. & Tarazona, J.V.: Ivermectin runoff and drainage in soils on experimental trays under Mediterranean conditions. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Pope, L. & Boxall, A.: Inputs and fate of ivermectin and metabolites in the UK pasture environment. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Metcalfe, C.D., Chu, S., Figueroa, M. & Li, H.: Discharges of serotonin reuptake inhibitor anti-depressants into surface waters. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Fernández, C., González-Doncel, M., Pro, J., Carbonell, G. & Tarazona, J.V.: Contamination by pharmaceuticals in surface waters of the Henares river basin (Madrid). Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Fernández, C, del Rio, C., Garcia, P., Heranz, P., Boleas, S., Aragonese, P., Pro, J. & Alonso, A.: Assessment of veterinary medicines using the soil microcosms MS 3. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Runnqvist, H., Krogh, K.A., Jensen, L.B. & Halling-Sørensen, B.: Multi-component and multi-class analysis of 23 antimicrobials, metabolites and degradation products. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Alonso, A., López-Mancisidor, P., Fernández, C., Carbonell, G., Sánchez, P. & Tarazona, J.V.: Development of extraction procedures and analytical method to analyze fluoxetine in water/sediment systems. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Sánchez, P., Alonso, A., Fernández, C. & Tarazona, J.V.: Use of a multi-species test for assessing the effects of fluoxetine on aquatic invertebrates. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Gust, M., Buronfosse, T., Giamberini, L., Ramil, M. & Garric, J.: Effects of fluoxetine on two gastropods prosobranch: P. antipodarum and V. piscinalis. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Egeler, P., Gilberg, D., Löffler, D., Fink, G., Ternes, T., Knacker T. & Duis, K.: Bioaccumulation of 3H-Ivermectin in Lumbriculus variegatus - preliminary results. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Moldan, N., Knacker, T., Fink, G., Ternes, T. & Duis, K.: Impact of ivermectin on Daphnia magna and Chironomus riparius in a water-sediment system. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

López-Mancisidor P., Carbonell G., Fernández, C. & Tarazona, J.V.: Response of plankton community to pulsed application of fluoxetine using indoor microcosms. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Küster, A., Escher, B., Hutchinson, T., Knacker, T., Rechenberg, B., Roennefahrt, I., Ternes, T., Wehrhan, A.: A preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment of the human pharmaceutical atenolol - an ERAPharm case study. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Fernández, C., López-Mancisidor P., Alonsa, A., Sánchez-Argüello, P., Carbonell, G. & Tarazona, J.V.: Higher tier aquatic environmental risk assessment of fluoxetine in central Spain. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Carbonell, G., Porcel, M.A., Gómez, N., Pro, J., Alonso, A., Garcia, P., Heranz, P., del Rio, C., Aragonese, P., Babin & Tarazona, J.V.: Higher tier environmental risk assessment of ivermectin under mediterranean conditions. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Carbonell, G., Pro, J., Aragonese, P., del Rio, C., Garcia, M.P., Heranz, N., Gómez, C., Fernández, C. & Tarazona, J.V.: Sewage sludge applications in agricultural lands: a methodological approach for assessing the potential risks. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Koschorreck, J. & Rechenberg, B.: Assessing the environmental safety of pharmaceuticals – experiences of an environmental agency. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Babut, M., Besse, J.P., Smedts, O. & Raidelet, N.: Pharmaecobase: a web-based database on environmental fate and effects of pharmaceuticals in support of risk assessment. Poster, ERAPharm conference ‘Pharmaceuticals in the Environment’, York (U.K.), 19-21 September 2007.

Knacker, T.: A focus on the findings from the ERAPharm project – Learn from the most up-to-date comprehensive EU-project on environmental risk assessment. Platform presentation, Informa Life Sciences conference ‘Environmental Risk Assessment of Human and Veterinary Medicines’, Berlin (Germany), 25-26 September.

Tarazona, J.V.: New developments in the environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals. Platform presentation, Informa Life Sciences conference ‘Environmental Risk Assessment of Human and Veterinary Medicines’, Berlin (Germany), 25-26 September.

Boxall, A.: Testing for metabolites as part of the ERA. Platform presentation, Informa Life Sciences conference ‘Environmental Risk Assessment of Human and Veterinary Medicines’, Berlin (Germany), 25-26 September.